2 edition of On the structure of cross-striated muscle and a suggestion as to the nature of its contraction found in the catalog.
On the structure of cross-striated muscle and a suggestion as to the nature of its contraction
|Other titles||Journal of Anatomy and Physiology.|
|Statement||by W. M"Dougall.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||p. 410-441, -585, xxv [i.e. 10] leaves of plates :|
|Number of Pages||585|
The longer the muscle (the longest muscle, the sartorius, is 50 cm long), the greater its range of movements. Contraction of a dome-shaped muscle, for example, the diaphragm, results in flattening, while contraction of a ring-shaped muscle, for example, a sphincter, results in constriction or closure of the opening that the muscle surrounds. A remarkably diverse group of organisms rely on a hydrostatic skeleton for support, movement, muscular antagonism and the amplification of the force and displacement of muscle contraction. In hydrostatic skeletons, force is transmitted not through rigid skeletal elements but instead by internal pressure. Functioning of these systems depends on the fact that they are essentially constant in.
- Muscle shortens actively causing movement - Isometric contraction = Muscle produces force but does not shorten (supporting weigh) - Concentric contraction = Muscle may produce force whilst shortening (kg bench) - Eccentric contraction = Muscle may produce active force while it is being stretched by the action of other muscles (breaking action). The overall structure of the sarcomere, the fundamental unit of contraction, is conserved from C. elegans to man, and the molecules involved in sarcomere assembly, maintenance, and regulation of muscle contraction are also largely conserved. This review reports the latest findings on the following topics: the transcriptional network that.
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Structure of Cross-Striated Muscle, and a Suggestion as to the Part I. Nature of its ContractionCited by: 4.
Structure of Cross-Striated Muscle, and a Suggestion as to the Part I. Nature of its Contraction. (PMID PMCID:PMC) PMID PMCID:PMC Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version.
Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (12M), or click on a page image below to browse page by by: 4. The Structure of Cross-Striated Muscle, and a Suggestion as to the Nature of its Contraction.
By W. M`Dougall. Topics: Articles. OAI identifier: oai: Provided by: PubMed Central. Suggested articles. To submit an update or takedown request for this Author: W. M`Dougall. The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century.
This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl Cited by: 3.
The objects most frequently used for the study of the contractile system are the striated muscles of vertebrate animals. Numerous histology investigations have shown that the contractile element of the muscle cell is the myofibrils that have a fibrillar protofibrillar structure and a cross-striated pattern.
Skeletal musculature Structure of the skeletal muscle. Muscle fibers and connective tissue layers make up the skeletal muscle.A skeletal muscle fiber is around µm thick and up to 20 cm logically it develops by the chain-like fusion of myoblasts.
About muscle fibers are surrounded by endomysium forming the functional unit of the muscle, the primary bundle. Muscle - Muscle - Twitch and tetanus responses: Skeletal muscles respond to a single electric shock of sufficient magnitude by rapid, intense contractions called phasic contractions.
If the ends of a frog sartorius muscle (at 0 °C) are fixed to prevent shortening, the tension increases for about milliseconds and then begins to decrease, at first rather rapidly and then more slowly.
Actin, protein that is an important contributor to the contractile property of muscle and other cells. In muscle, two long strands of actin molecules are twisted together to form a thin filament, bundles of which alternate with bundles of myosin.
The temporary fusion of actin and myosin results in muscle contraction. The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century.
This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl –84, ) in Vienna, Austria. Concerning mechanisms of contraction, Edward A. Schäfer (–), histologist and physiologist in Edinburgh, described differences between cardiac and skeletal muscle and coined the term sarcomere.
Based on microscopic studies of cross-striated muscle, Schäfer outlined a detailed and plausible mechanism of muscle contraction in Lowy J, Poulsen FR, Vibert J () Myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle. Nature – PubMed CrossRef Google Bennett PM () Structure of the cross-striated adductor muscle of the scallop.
J Mol Biol Squire JM () Muscle filament structure and muscle contraction. Annu Rev Biophys Bioeng – Cross-striated muscle is organized in sarcomeres, repeating units ∼2–3-μm long. Huxley, in his Ph.D. thesis in (see Huxley, a), observed that the basic meridional periodicities of muscle remain constant at various muscle lengths.
Equatorial reflections indicated. Describe the gross structure of a skeletal muscle. For easy reference, Table on p. summarizes the levels of skeletal muscle organi- zation, gross to microscopic, that we describe in this and the following modules. This structure is unique to cardiac muscle cells, and allows individual cells to be firmly attached to each other (to provide mechanical strength during contraction), and also allow the action potential to spread rapidly through the cardiac muscle tissue, so that contractions are smooth and coordinated.
Muscle forces are produced by repeated stereotypical actomyosin units called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are chained into linear myofibrils spanning the entire muscle fiber. In mammalian body muscles, myofibrils are aligned laterally, resulting in their typical cross-striated morphology.
Despite this detailed textbook knowledge about the adult muscle structure, it is still unclear how cross. Request PDF | Muscle Contraction | Muscular contraction is one of the few biological processes that can be appreciated directly in our everyday lives.
In the past few decades a | Find, read and. WILLIAM McDOUGALL: BIBLIOGRAPHY SMITH, MAY MAY SMITH London School of Hygiene On the structure of cross-striated muscle, and a suggestion as to the nature of its contraction, /.
Anat. & Physiol,31, ; A theory of muscular contraction. The sarcomeres are what give skeletal and cardiac muscles their striated appearance, which was first described by Van Leeuwenhoek. A sarcomere is defined as the segment between two neighbouring Z-lines (or Z-discs, or Z bodies).
In electron micrographs of cross-striated muscle, the Z-line (from the German "Zwischenscheibe", the disc in between the I bands) appears as a series of dark lines. j) describe the ultrastructure of striated muscle with particular reference to sarcomere structure k) explain the sliding filament model of muscular contraction including the roles of troponin, tropomyosin, calcium ions and ATP.
For more than 1, years, nerves were thought to function through the action of 'animal spirits'. In the seventeenth century, René Descartes conceived of these 'spirits' as liquids or gases, and.Recent Advances in Muscle Research Muscle, a tissue that accounts for about 40% of the weight of the human body, has been studied from the gross anatomical level down to the atomic level.
Sir William Bowman, a pioneer in early muscle studies, summed up some of the difficulties in studying skele-tal muscle cells in in his famous text book enti.1 Muscle Contraction: cardiac, smooth and skeletal 1. Types On the basis of structure, contractile properties and control mechanisms, three types of muscle can be identified: 1) skeletal muscle, 2) smooth muscle and 3) cardiac muscle.
Although there are significant differences between these muscle types, the force-generating mechanisms are similar.